1. GIVE A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE FOLLOWING: a) Angina pectoris b) Myocardial infarction c) Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease d) Sudden Cardiac Death 2. i) OUTLINE PERICARDIAL DISEASE WITH REFERENCE TO : a) Definition b) Etiology c) Pathogenesis d) Morphology e) Clinical features ii) BRIEFLY DISCUSS a) Lipoma b) Rhabdomyoma 3. i) Briefly discuss Valvular Heart Disease ii) Briefly discuss Carcinoid heart disease
1. Brief account of the following: a) Angina pectoris: It is a condition characterized by chest pain or discomfort caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle. It usually occurs during physical or emotional stress and is relieved by rest or medication. It is caused by atherosclerosis or narrowing of the coronary arteries, leading to reduced blood flow to the heart. b) Myocardial infarction: It is a condition where there is a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, leading to damage or death of the heart tissue. It is commonly known as a heart attack and is caused by the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery. Valvular Heart Disease Essay Discussion Paper
c) Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease: It is a condition where there is a chronic insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle, leading to damage or death of the heart tissue. It is caused by atherosclerosis or narrowing of the coronary arteries. d) Sudden Cardiac Death: It is a sudden, unexpected death caused by a cardiac event such as ventricular fibrillation or a massive heart attack. It can occur in people with or without prior heart disease and is often caused by an underlying arrhythmia.
i) Pericardial disease: a) Definition: It is a group of conditions that affect the pericardium, the sac-like structure that surrounds the heart. b) Etiology: Pericardial disease can be caused by infections, such as viral or bacterial pericarditis, autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, cancer, trauma, or radiation therapy. c) Pathogenesis: The inflammation of the pericardium can lead to the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, known as pericardial effusion. In severe cases, the inflammation can lead to the formation of scar tissue and thickening of the pericardium, known as constrictive pericarditis, which can restrict the heart’s movement and lead to heart failure.
d) Morphology: In acute pericarditis, the pericardium is inflamed and may be covered in fibrinous exudate. In chronic pericarditis, there may be fibrosis or calcification of the pericardium.
e) Clinical features: Pericardial disease can cause chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, fever, and signs of fluid overload, such as edema and jugular venous distention.
ii) Brief discussion of: a) Lipoma: It is a benign tumor composed of adipose tissue that can occasionally arise in the pericardium. It is usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies. b) Rhabdomyoma: It is a rare tumor composed of skeletal muscle tissue that can occasionally arise in the heart, usually in children with tuberous sclerosis. It can cause arrhythmias or obstruct blood flow and may require surgical removal.
3. I) Valvular Heart Disease: It is a group of conditions that affect the heart valves, including stenosis, or narrowing, and regurgitation, or leaking, of the valves. It can be caused by congenital defects, rheumatic fever, infections, or degenerative changes. ii) Carcinoid Heart Disease: It is a rare condition caused by the release of serotonin and other vasoactive substances by carcinoid tumors. It can lead to fibrosis and thickening of the heart valves, particularly the tricuspid valve, and can cause symptoms of right-sided heart failure, such as edema and ascites. Treatment may require surgical valve replacement. Valvular Heart Disease Essay Discussion Paper