Understanding Whether Biodiversity Is Affected By Synergistic Impacts

You work for an international conservation agency that is trying to understand whether biodiversity is affected by synergistic impacts between over-harvesting and logging in fragments of forest habitat. Your colleagues designed experiments in forest fragments around the world that differed in whether they had harvesting, logging and both harvesting and logging. They used protected forests as a control group. In each forest fragment, they surveyed the number of amphibian species. They obtained the following data:

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You work for an international conservation agency that is trying to understand whether biodiversity is affected by synergistic impacts between over-harvesting and logging in fragments of forest habitat. Your colleagues designed experiments in forest fragments around the world that differed in whether they had harvesting, logging and both harvesting and logging. They used protected forests as a control group. In each forest fragment, they surveyed the number of amphibian species. They obtained the following data: 72 Using these data, complete the following tasks: a. Explain which are the dependent and independent variables [2] b. Describe which statistical analysis would be appropriate to analyse these data and why [5] c. Read the data into $R$ and perform the appropriate statistical test [9] d. Report and explain the statistical outputs [5] e. Write a summary of the main conclusion in a way that is understandable to non-statisticians [3] f. Present the data in an informative figure [6] Understanding Whether Biodiversity Is Affected By Synergistic Impacts

### Step-by-step

**Step 2/5**

**Step 3/5**

**command will show the ANOVA table, which includes the F-statistic, degrees of freedom, and p-value. The p-value represents the probability of obtaining the observed results or more extreme results if there were no differences between the groups. If the p-value is less than the significance level (usually 0.05), we can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there are significant differences between the groups.**

`summary(anova_result)`

**Step 4/5**

**Step 5/5**

**function,**

`aov()`

**is the dependent variable, and**

`protected`

**indicates that we want to include all other columns in the data frame as independent variables. The ANOVA table can be viewed using the**

`.`

**function.**

`summary()`

**command will show the ANOVA table, which includes the F-statistic, degrees of freedom, and p-value. The p-value represents the probability of obtaining the observed results or more extreme results if there were no differences between the groups. If the p-value is less than the significance level (usually 0.05), we can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there are significant differences between the groups.**

`summary(anova_result)`

**Final answer**