The Association Of Sugar Intake And Death Essay Paper

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Step 1/3

The two 2×2 tables for the association of sugar intake and death are as follows:

Table 1: T2 (exposed) vs. T1 (referent)

**Died Survived Total**

T2 9,000 291,000 300,000

T1 6,000 294,000 300,000

Total15,000 585,000 600,000

Table 2: T3 (exposed) vs. T1 (referent)

**Died Survived Total**

T3 15,000 285,000 300,000

T1 6,000 294,000 300,000

Total 21,000 579,000 600,000

Step 2/3

To calculate the relative risk (RR) for each table, we can use the formula:

RR = (a/b) / (c/d)

- Explanation for step 2

where a is the number of deaths in the exposed group, b is the number of non-deaths in the exposed group, c is the number of deaths in the referent group, and d is the number of non-deaths in the referent group.

For Table 1 (T2 vs. T1), the RR is:

RR = (9,000/291,000) / (6,000/294,000) = 1.5

Step 3/3

The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the RR can be calculated using the formula:

CI = exp(ln(RR) ± 1.96 x SE)

- Explanation for step 3

where SE is the standard error of the natural logarithm of the RR, which can be calculated using the formula:

SE = sqrt((1/a) + (1/b) + (1/c) + (1/d))

For Table 1, the SE is:

SE = sqrt((1/9,000) + (1/291,000) + (1/6,000) + (1/294,000)) = 0.019

Therefore, the 95% CI for the RR in Table 1 is:

CI = exp(ln(1.5) ± 1.96 x 0.019) = (1.44, 1.57)

This means that men in T2 had a 1.5 times higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to men in T1, and the true RR is likely to be between 1.44 and 1.57 with 95% confidence The Association Of Sugar Intake And Death Essay Paper

For Table 2 (T3 vs. T1), the RR is:

RR = (15,000/285,000) / (6,000/294,000) = 2.5

The SE for Table 2 is:

SE = sqrt((1/15,000) + (1/285,000) + (1/6,000) + (1/294,000)) = 0.023

Therefore, the 95% CI for the RR in Table 2 is:

CI = exp(ln(2.5) ± 1.96 x 0.023) = (2.38, 2.63)

This means that men in T3 had a 2.5 times higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to men in T1, and the true RR is likely to be between 2.38 and

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