The staff at the state health department Birth Defects Registry systematically visit the labor and delivery units of all hospitals in the state on an on-going basis and review their records to identify major congenital malformations. This is an example of [Choose the ONE best answer]: A. Sentinel surveillance B. Active surveillance C. Passive surveillance D. Syndromic surveillance
The staff at the state health department Birth Defects Registry systematically visit the labor and delivery units of all hospitals in the state on an on-going basis and review their records to identify major congenital malformations. This is an example of [Choose the ONE best answer]:
A. Sentinel surveillance
B. Active surveillance
C. Passive surveillance
D. Syndromic surveillance
ANS. B. Active surveillance
Active surveillance involves actively seeking out cases through regular and systematic collection of data. In this scenario, the staff at the state health department Birth Defects Registry are systematically visiting labor and delivery units of all hospitals in the state to review their records and identify major congenital malformations, which is an example of active surveillance.
Sentinel surveillance, a technique for public health surveillance, entails keeping an eye on a particular population or group, like a sample of hospitals or clinics, to spot trends or modifications in disease incidence or health outcomes. With this approach, a representative sample of the population is chosen, and its health is periodically checked for the existence of a certain disease or condition. The information gathered from this group is then used to calculate the disease or condition’s overall population-wide burden.
Sentinel surveillance is especially helpful for spotting shifts in disease trends or new outbreaks in communities that are highly susceptible to a specific disease. Additionally, it aids in tracking the success of public health initiatives like vaccination drives.
Passive surveillance is a public health surveillance method in which healthcare providers, laboratories, or other sources regularly report cases of a particular disease or condition to public health authorities. In this method, data is collected passively as cases are identified in the normal course of medical care.
Passive surveillance is commonly used for diseases or conditions that are well-known and have a well-established reporting system in place, such as infectious diseases like tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted infections. It can also be used for non-infectious diseases such as cancer and birth defects
D. Syndromic surveillance
Syndromic surveillance is a technique for monitoring non-specific health indicators, such fever, coughing, or rashes, in order to spot early indications of outbreaks or bioterrorism incidents. This approach involves gathering information from a variety of places, including schools, primary care offices, and emergency rooms, and then analyzing it to look for trends in sickness that could point to a wider outbreak or public health emergency.
Syndromic surveillance can identify increases in illness or symptoms before precise disease diagnoses are made, giving early warning of epidemics or bioterrorism incidents. Additionally, it can be used to track the effectiveness of public health measures, keep tabs on the progression of an outbreak or epidemic, and spot variations in disease patterns over time.
B. Active surveillance
Active surveillance is a public health surveillance method in which public health officials actively search for cases of a specific disease or condition by gathering data through regular and systematic collection. It involves the regular and systematic collection of data by health authorities or other organizations, rather than waiting for healthcare providers to report cases. Active surveillance can help identify new cases early, track trends and changes in disease patterns, and detect outbreaks or clusters of cases quickly. It is often used for diseases that have a high public health impact, are rare, or require immediate action, such as emerging infectious diseases or foodborne illnesses. Examples of active surveillance include regular visits to hospitals or clinics to review patient records or laboratory results, and active searches for cases in specific populations or geographic areas.
Sentinel surveillance, on the other hand, involves monitoring a specific group or population to identify trends or changes in disease or health outcomes. Passive surveillance involves the regular reporting of cases by healthcare providers, laboratories, or other sources, but without active efforts to seek out cases. Syndromic surveillance involves the monitoring of non-specific health indicators, such as fever or cough, to detect early warning signs of outbreaks or bioterrorism events. Public Health Surveillance Method Essay Paper