Pennsylvania Institute of Technology Practical Nursing Program Essay Paper
Pennsylvania Institute of Technology Practical Nursing Program NUR140 Final Exam Nutrition first time tested 1. Macronutrients vs micronutrients – general definition 2. Protein – function and food sources 3. Carbohydrates- a. Food sources b. Simple vs complex carbs c. Glycemic index – what does a high or low index mean 4. Water soluble vitamins – function and source of below a. Vit b. Vit C 5. Fat soluble – function and source of below a. Vit D b. Vit c. Vit K 6. Minterals – function and source of below a. Calcium b. Potassium c. Sodium 7. Reading natrition labels- serving size, added sugar. calculating carbs 8. Benefits of omegn 3 fatty acids 9. Therapeutic diets-recognizing accurate diet a. b. Regular c. Softlow residuc d. Full liquid vs clear liquuìd e. Heart healthy f. Controlled carbs / diabetic g. Renal 10. Techniques to prevent aspiration 11. Assisting with meals – 12. Enteral feeding – steps for safe administration 13. Factors affecting nutrition / interventions 14. Calculating I \& 0 a. What’s included? b. 15. BMI categories
Macronutrients refer to the nutrients required by the body in large amounts for energy, growth, and other physiological functions. These include carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
On the other hand, micronutrients, which include vitamins and minerals, are needed in very small amounts.
Protein function and food sources.
The building blocks of the body’s tissues, including muscles, organs, and bones, are proteins, which are crucial nutrients. Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, beans, and nuts are all excellent sources of protein.
3. Carbohydrates Food sources
The body’s primary fuel source is carbohydrate. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes are excellent sources of carbs.
B. Simple vs complex carbs
Simple carbs, which include table sugar, honey, and fruit juice, are sugars that the body digests and absorbs fast. Contrarily, complex carbs, which include whole grains, vegetables, and legumes, are composed of longer chains of glucose and require more time to digest.
E. Glycemic index-what does a high or low index mean
The glycemic index gauges how rapidly foods high in carbohydrates boost blood sugar levels. A food with a high glycemic index raises blood sugar quickly, whereas one with a low glycemic index raises blood sugar more gradually.
4 Water soluble vitamins-function and source
Red blood cells and healthy nerve cells both depend on vitamin B12. Meat, fish, dairy products, and fortified cereals are good sources of vitamin B12.
Vitamin C is important for maintaining healthy skin
5. Fat soluble-function and source
A. Vit. D
assists in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and is generated by the skin in reaction to sunshine. Foods like fatty fish, egg yolks, and fortified dairy products also include it.
B. Vitamin E
is an antioxidant that is present in leafy greens, nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils.
C. Vitamin K
important for blood clotting, and can be found in leafy greens, broccoli, and vegetable oils.
Minerals and their functions and sources
In dairy products, leafy greens, and fortified foods, you can find calcium, which is crucial for bone health, muscle function, and nerve transmission.
Bananas, sweet potatoes, and leafy greens are good sources of this nutrient, which is crucial for nerve and muscle function.
processed foods, table salt, and some naturally occurring sources like celery and beets all contain this mineral, which is crucial for fluid balance and neuronal function.
Reading nutrition labels
the quantity of food that constitutes a serving, from which the other data on the label are derived.
the quantity of sugar added to a food during processing or preparation, which might increase the risk of health issues and contribute to overall calorie intake.
the total quantity of sugars and fibre in a serving of carbs.
8. Benefits of omega 3 fatty acids
They have anti-inflammatory properties and can support healthy skin and eyes, lower the risk of heart disease, and enhance cognitive function. They are present in seeds, nuts, and fatty fish.
Therapeutic diets-recognizing accurate diet
nothing by mouth, usually prescribed for short periods of time before a medical procedure or after surgery.
balanced diet that includes all food groups.
C. Soft low residue
For some digestive problems, a low-fiber, easily digestible diet is advised.
D. Full liquid vs clear liquid
While only transparent fluids are included in clear liquids, full liquids also include foods that are liquid or that can become liquid at room temperature.
E. Heart healthy
a diet heavy in fibre, fruits, and vegetables and low in saturated fat, trans fat, and sodium.
10. Controlled carbs/ diabetic
a diet that limits the intake of calories, sweets, and carbohydrates to help people with diabetes control their blood sugar levels.
11. Techniques to prevent aspiration
eating while standing up straight, chewing food completely, minimising distractions, and thickening liquids all help to lower the risk of aspiration.
12. Assisting with meals
giving appropriate food, helping with utensils or special equipment if needed, and creating a comfortable and peaceful setting.
13. Factors affecting nutrition/interventions
There are several factors that can affect nutrition and dietary interventions, including:
Age: Depending on the individual’s age, different nutrients are required for children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. Gender: Because of physiologic variations, males and women may have differing dietary needs. Health status: Certain medical conditions or drugs may affect nutrient absorption or raise nutrient requirements. Activity level: Those who are more active can need more nutrition to support their energy expenditure. Religious or cultural convictions: These elements may have an impact on dietary limitations and food preferences. Socioeconomic Status: The availability of resources and food may have an impact on the type and amount of food consumed.
The term “Intake and Output” refers to a method of monitoring a patient’s fluid balance. All sources of fluid intake and output should be observed and noted in order to compute I&O.
Any liquids ingested by mouth, such as juice, water, and other beverages, are considered to be oral intake.
fluids administered intravenously, or IV fluids.
Fluids administered via a feeding tube are referred to as tube feedings.
Any liquid that leaves the body is considered an output, including urine, faeces, vomit, and drainage from wounds or tubes.
H. I oz-30 ml.
30 ml is about how much 1 oz is. When measuring fluid intake or output, this translation is crucial since different measurements may be employed in various contexts or by various healthcare professionals.
15. BMI categories:- A measurement of body fat based on height and weight is called the Body Mass Index
Based on their BMI values, individuals are categorised into several weight groups. The following BMI classifications have been established by the World Health Organization (WHO): Overweight: BMI between 25 and 29.9 Underweight: BMI less than 18.5 Normal weight: BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 BMI between 30 and 34.9 falls into obesity class 1, and BMI between 35 and 39.9 falls into obesity class 2. BMI 40 or higher defines obesity class 3 These BMI categories are helpful in determining a person’s risk for several illnesses, including diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
the.. for the.. for the.. for the.. for the.. for the.. for the.. for the.. for the.. for the.. for the. It covers every aspect of food, including how it influences our health and wellbeing as well as how it is metabolized, absorbed, transported, and used by the body. Pennsylvania Institute of Technology Practical Nursing Program Essay Paper