What is the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder diagnosis?
How would you explain and teach your patient about the pathophysiology of this medical problem using non-medical terminology?
Bipolar Disorder:- Manic depression, formerly known as bipolar disorder, is a mental health illness that results in sharp mood swings, including emotional highs (mania or hypomania), and lows (depression).
You might experience sadness or a sense of hopelessness while you’re depressed, and you might stop enjoying most activities. You can experience euphoria, a surge of energy, or an uncharacteristically irritated mood as your mood switches to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania). These mood changes might impair one’s ability to think effectively, sleep, be active, have energy, and make decisions.
An estimated 1.6% of people worldwide are affected by the chronic condition known as bipolar disorder (BD), which is one of the leading causes of disability globally. In the previous ten years, It has been established that BD is a diverse condition with a wide range of symptomatology and progression. BD pathophysiology is still not fully known, despite improvements in the research techniques employed in biological psychiatry and the current understanding of the mechanisms of action of mood stabilizer’s.
Pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder:– It is characterized by disease in the brain systems in charge of controlling emotion as well as abnormalities in the dopamine and serotonin systems. In the setting of these vulnerabilities, psychosocial stresses, particularly life events and familial expressed emotion, considerably influence the course of the illness.
Bipolar disorder may alter the chemical balance of the brain. Bipolar disorder is thought by experts to be linked to a chemical imbalance in the brain. Neurotransmitters are substances in the brain that help the brain’s various regions communicate with one another. These chemical imbalances may contribute to bipolar disorder symptoms.
Areas of the brain that regulate neurovegetative functions (such as sleep, hunger, libido, and energy) and emotion are affected by organic lesions in manic disorders.
According to the monoamine-deficiency theory, the central nervous system’s lack of the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine is the pathophysiological root cause of depression. The neurotransmitter serotonin has been investigated the most in relation to depression. Pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis Essay
Symptoms Bipolar disorder and its related disorders come in a variety of forms. Depression and mania or hypomania may be among them. Symptoms might bring about erratic changes in mood and behavior, which can cause serious distress and make life difficult.
1. Bipolar disorder type I: You’ve experienced at least one manic episode, which may have been preceded or followed by serious depressed or hypomanic episodes. Mania may occasionally cause a break from reality (psychosis). 2.Bipolar disorder type ll: You’ve never experienced a manic episode, but you have at least one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode. 3.Cyclothymic disorder: You’ve experienced multiple periods of hypomania symptoms and multiple periods of depressed symptoms for at least two years, or one year in adolescents and teenagers (though less severe than major depression).
4.Other types. These include, for example, bipolar and related disorders induced by certain drugs or alcohol or due to a medical condition, such as Cushing’s disease, multiple sclerosis or stroke.
Hypomania and mania Despite being two different types of events, hypomania and mania share the same symptoms. Mania is more severe than hypomania and results in more obvious issues with relationships, employment, school, and social activities. A psychotic break (psychosis) brought on by mania may also necessitate hospitalization. Three or more of the following symptoms are present in both manic and hypomanic episodes: unusually happy, jittery, or wired increased energy, activity, or excitement inflated sense of happiness and confidence (euphoria) fewer sleep hours required unusual talkativeness Flustered thinking Distractibility inadequate decision-making
Major symptoms severe depression When a major depressive episode occurs, the symptoms are severe enough to significantly interfere with daily activities including job, school, social interactions, or romantic relationships. Five or more of the following symptoms constitute an episode: Depressed mood, including sadness, emptiness, hopelessness, or tears (in children and teens, depressed mood can appear as irritability) marked loss of interest in or lack of enjoyment in all (or nearly all) activities Significant weight reduction without dieting, weight gain, or a change in appetite is not present (in children, failure to gain weight as expected can be a sign of depression) Insomnia or excessive sleeping either agitation or sluggish behaviour fatigue or a decrease in energy Self-doubt or excessive or inappropriate guilt feelings reduced capacity
Diagnosis Your assessment could consist of the following to see if you have bipolar disorder: examination of the body:- To determine any medical conditions that might be causing your symptoms, your doctor may perform a physical examination and blood tests. Psychiatric evaluation:- A psychiatrist who will discuss your thoughts, feelings, and behavioral patterns with you may be recommended by your doctor.
A psychological self-assessment or questionnaire is another option. Family members or close friends may be questioned, with your consent, for details regarding your symptoms.
mood mapping :-You might be requested to keep a daily journal of your emotions, sleeping habits, or other characteristics that could be used to diagnose and select the best course of treatment. Bipolar disorder criteria:-in The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) published by the American Psychiatric Association, contains criteria for bipolar and related disorders. Your psychiatrist may compare your symptoms with these criteria. Pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis Essay
Layman terms:-Manic depression, formerly known as bipolar disorder, is a mental health illness that results in sharp mood swings, including emotional highs (mania or hypomania), and lows (depression). When you experience depression, you could feel melancholy or hopeless and stop enjoying or being interested in most activities.
Manic-depressive disorder, sometimes referred to as bipolar disorder, is a mental illness that results in abrupt changes in mood, vigor, and level of activity. Extreme highs (mania) and lows (depression) episodes are common among bipolar disorder patients (depression). People who are experiencing mania may feel extremely energized and euphoric, and their thoughts and speech may race. People who are depressed may feel extremely lethargic, hopeless, and have trouble concentrating.
Bipolar disorder is often treated with talk therapy, dietary changes, and medication. People can learn coping mechanisms, improve their interpersonal connections, and recognize bipolar disorder episode triggers with the aid of talk therapy. A balanced diet, frequent exercise, and appropriate sleep are a few examples of lifestyle modifications. Medication can aid with symptom management and mood stabilization. People with bipolar disorder should seek support from a mental health professional as well as maintain relationships with friends and family. People with bipolar disorder can have happy and fulfilling lives if they receive the right care.
Both episodes of severe depression and episodes of mania—overwhelming joy, excitement, or enthusiasm, tremendous energy, a decreased need for sleep, and fewer inhibitions—are experienced by people with bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a highly individual experience. No two people’s experiences are identical.
For better understanding pathophysiology and diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder go through step wise. Pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis Essay