Nutritional Assessment for Patients Essay Assignment Paper
Please give a NUTRITION ASSESSMENT for a patient Dx: Hepatic Encephalopathy
Age: 57 Sex: MALE
PMH: Decompensated Cirrhosis, Hepatitis C (failed treatment), Bleeding esophageal varices, ascites, chronic liver disease, History of tobacco use, Benign essential HTN, Syncope d/t orthostatic HTN, Bipolar disorder, Alcohol dependence, LBP, DM w/o complications
- Anthropometric measurements:
- Weight: The patient’s current weight should be recorded and compared with their previous measurements to monitor any changes in weight.
- Height: The patient’s height should be measured if possible to calculate body mass index (BMI).
- BMI: BMI can be calculated by dividing the patient’s weight (in kilograms) by their height squared (in meters). A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is overweight, and a BMI over 30 is obese.
- Waist circumference: This measurement can be used to assess the patient’s risk of metabolic syndrome and other obesity-related conditions. A waist circumference greater than 102 cm (40 inches) in men is considered a high risk for metabolic complications. Nutritional Assessment for Patients Essay Assignment Paper
- Biochemical data:
- Albumin: Serum albumin levels are frequently used to assess nutritional status in patients with liver disease. Low levels of serum albumin (less than 3.5 g/dL) can indicate malnutrition and may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients.
- Pre-albumin: Pre-albumin levels are another indicator of nutritional status and are often used to monitor changes in nutritional status over time.
- Total protein: Total protein levels may be decreased in patients with malnutrition.
- Hemoglobin: Hemoglobin levels may be decreased in patients with anemia, which can be a consequence of liver disease and malnutrition.
- Clinical data:
- Muscle wasting: Muscle wasting may be present in patients with malnutrition and liver disease.
- Edema: Edema, especially in the lower extremities, may be a sign of fluid retention and can be indicative of ascites.
- Jaundice: Jaundice can indicate liver dysfunction and is a common symptom of cirrhosis.
- Hepatic encephalopathy: Hepatic encephalopathy can cause changes in mental status, confusion, and cognitive impairment.
- Diet history:
- The patient’s dietary intake should be assessed, including the frequency of meals, the types of foods consumed, and any dietary restrictions or preferences.
- In patients with hepatic encephalopathy, a low protein diet may be recommended to decrease the production of ammonia in the gut.
- A diet low in sodium may also be recommended to decrease fluid retention and prevent the development of ascites.
- Physical activity:
- The patient’s physical activity level should be assessed to determine their energy requirements and potential for muscle wasting.
- In patients with advanced liver disease, physical activity may be limited due to fatigue and weakness.