A series of chronic lung disorders known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) make breathing difficult and is a progressive condition that worsens with time.
AETIOLOGY: Prolonged exposure to toxic gases or particle matter is the main cause. The most frequent cause is smoking cigarettes.
COPD leads to the destruction of the lungs’ airways and small sacs, which can be felt as a progression of a cough with mucous to dyspnea.
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS: IT include wheezing, chest tightness, exhaustion, coughing up phlegm, shortness of breath, and frequent respiratory infections.
Severe conditions can result in muscle weakness, swelling of the legs, foot, and ankles.
The primary diagnostic criteria is done based on symptoms and risk factors.
using radiography imaging (chest x-rays and CT scans ), 6 minute walk test and spirometry we can detect copd. It was also done through lab tests (blood gas analysis, which used to calculate the blood’s CO2 and oxygen levels).
Antibiotics for lung infections caused by bacteria.
Glucocorticosteroids, which are used to treat inflammation.
• antiviral drugs, which can be used to treat the flu.
• oxygen treatment for low oxygen levels.
• bronchodilators to open blocked airways.
• respiratory or ventilator assistance for individuals who couldn’t breathe on their own; respiratory stimulants.
Treat symptoms ,increasing exercise tolerance, enhancing health, preventing and treating problems, preventing and treating exacerbations, and lowering mortality are all objectives. Medical and Nursing Management Essay Discussion Paper