Write a multiple-choice patient case for heart failure that incorporates information from MCP and PT (use one learning objective from each class). Include pertinent patient demographics, PMH, HPI, meds, vitals, labs, and any other important information. Explain how your case assesses the learning objectives it is based upon (we will discuss further in the resonance session) Heart Failure Essay Case Study
Case Study: A 45-year-old female patient with Heart Failure, based on MCP and PT Learning Objectives Patient Demographics The patient is a 45-year-old female presenting with two months of shortness of breath, having been an otherwise healthy patient until March 2021. She has no comorbidities and her family history is unremarkable. Past Medical History (PMH) The patient has no past medical history of relevance. History of Present Illness (HPI) The patient initially presented with two months of shortness of breath which started in March 2021. She reports fatigue, intermittent dizziness, and increased swelling in her feet and legs. She has had no chest pain, palpitations, fever, chills, or other acute symptoms. Medications The patient is not currently taking any medication. Vital Signs Blood Pressure: 134/78 mmHg Pulse Rate: 78 bpm Respiratory Rate: 16 breaths per minute Temperature: 98.6 F Oxygen saturation (on room air): 98% Lab Results Complete Blood Count (CBC): White Blood cell count (WBC): 10,400 x 10^3/uL Platelets: 434 x 10^3/uL Hemoglobin (Hgb): 13.7 g/dL Hematocrit (Hct): 40.8% Red blood cell count (RBC): 4.19 x 10^6/uL Cardiac Enzymes Troponin I: 0.08 ng/mL CK-MB: 5 ng/mL NT-proBNP: 1863.5 pg/mL Electrocardiogram (ECG) The ECG revealed sinus tachycardia at a rate of 78 beats per minute. Echocardiogram (Echo) The Echo showed left ventricular ejection fraction of 25-30%, mild dilatation of the left ventricle and moderate global hypokinesis. Diagnosis Based on the patient’s presentation, laboratory results, and imaging studies, the patient was diagnosed with heart failure. Learning Objectives Given this case study, the learning objectives from both MCP and PT classes that can be addressed are: From MCP: understand pathophysiological pathways of heart failure From PT: assess the impact of lifestyle and nutrition interventions on patients with heart failure
Assessment of Learning Objectives Understand Pathophysiological Pathways of Heart Failure Heart failure is caused by a variety of factors including coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and other conditions. The underlying pathophysiology of heart failure is based on the inability of the heart muscle to adequately pump blood throughout the body, resulting in decreased oxygen flow to the vital organs and systems and accumulation of fluid in the lungs and other organs. In order to understand the pathophysiology of heart failure, it is important to recognize how the different components of the cardiovascular system interact to maintain homeostasis, as well as how certain pathological processes can disrupt this balance. Assess the Impact of Lifestyle and Nutrition Interventions on Patients with Heart Failure Once a patient has been identified as having heart failure, it is important to assess the potential impact of lifestyle and nutrition interventions on the patient’s prognosis. This includes evaluating the patient’s current physical activity levels, nutrition patterns, and stress management strategies, and developing a plan to improve these factors. It is also important to consider the impact of medications on the patient’s lifestyle, as medications such as diuretics can have significant implications for dietary intake and physical activity. Furthermore, it is important to ensure that the patient is empowered to become an active participant in their own care through education about their condition, risk factors, and treatment options.
Conclusion Heart failure is a complex condition with multiple possible causes and a wide range of possible interventions. In order to effectively diagnose and treat the condition, it is important to understand its underlying pathophysiology, as well as assess the potential impact of lifestyle and nutrition interventions. Through this case study, we were able to evaluate how the patient’s presentation and laboratory results led to the diagnosis of heart failure, as well as consider how lifestyle and nutrition interventions may help improve the patient’s outcome. Heart Failure Essay Case Study