Circulation affects distribution – heart med pharmacokinetics, dynamics highlights What is a reliable source for med info What would an elevated ALT or AST mean? What does PT/INR and PTT reflect? KNOW normal values and therapeutic values What would BUN and CREATININE levels be in Chronic renal failure? Know normal HGB, HCT, PLT, glucose, NA Remember: DAW is for brand or trade drugs (cannot substitute with generics!!) pregnancy categories and teratogenic (potential) D, X (definite) age related medication administration safety; may have poor renal function Errors/accountability: nursing process and role agonist vs antagonistic adrenergic/Sympathomimetic ax’s Food/drug interactions
Anticholinergic medications can cause side effects that include decreased sexual function, constipation, and urinary retention (can’t pee). Drugs that affect the heart can have their distribution influenced by circulation. Understanding the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of medications is important for safe and effective administration. A reliable source for medication information is the drug package insert provided by the manufacturer. Anticholinergic Medications Side Effects Essay Paper
Elevated levels of ALT or AST in blood tests can indicate liver damage or disease.
PT/INR and PTT are tests used to assess blood clotting ability. Normal values for
PT/INR are 11-13.5 seconds/0.8-1.1, and therapeutic values vary depending on the indication for anticoagulation. Normal PTT is 25-35 seconds, and therapeutic values are also variable.
In chronic renal failure, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatinine levels will typically be elevated. Normal values for hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), platelets (PLT), glucose, and sodium (Na) can vary depending on the laboratory and the patient population.
DAW (Dispense As Written) is a designation used by prescribers to indicate that a specific brand or trade drug should be dispensed instead of a generic equivalent.
Medications can have different pregnancy categories based on their potential teratogenic effects. Category C indicates potential risk, category D indicates definite risk, and category X indicates a high risk of fetal abnormalities.
Age-related changes in the body can affect medication absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Dosing adjustments may be needed for patients with poor renal function.
Nurses play a critical role in the medication administration process and are responsible for following the nursing process to ensure safe and effective care. This includes assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
Agonist medications stimulate cellular activity, while antagonist medications inhibit it. Adrenergic/sympathomimetic drugs mimic the effects of the sympathetic nervous system and can increase heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate.
Food and drug interactions can occur when medications affect the absorption, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. It is important to review medication and dietary histories to identify potential interactions.
The rights of medication administration include the right patient, right medication, right dose, right route, and right time. Patient identifiers such as name, date of birth, and medical record number should be confirmed before medication administration.
In the event of a medication error, the patient should be assessed first and then the error should be reported to the appropriate individuals or authorities.
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